APA, MLA, and Chicago are the more commonly used citation styles. By applying these, a research writer recognizes sources from which they extract concepts, words, and images. Let’s start to know the brief history of these formats used for citations and bibliographic references and the differences between them.
The American Psychological Association developed the APA style as a format used for citations and bibliographic references. APA is the seventh and most recent edition of the style that governs how to cite sources and create bibliographies. Emerged in 1929, APA is a proposal to standardize procedures applied in scientific writing to facilitate reading comprehension.
It is the standard for the publication of academic work. Initially, social science researchers were used to applying this style. With the passage of time, it spread to other fields. In 2014, the University of Lima adopted this referencing and citation style.
Today, the APA International Style is one of the most common styles around the world. It aims to ensure transparency and high-quality references for the sources used in an article, dissertation, thesis, etc.
Most commonly, APA standards are used by scientific journals and universities specializing in the humanities, including psychology, philology, sociology, and so on.
In the academic world, there is an official APA manual and their formal recommendations for adapting the standards of the APA style. For this reason, scientific journals and universities may treat specific elements of APA-style references.
|Book reference and citation Kanvaria, V. (2015). Plagiarism, citation and referencing. Create Space. (Kanvaria, 2015) Journal reference and citation Dibley, J., & Machanick, P. (2021). Citation and referencing guidelines. South African Computer Journal, 33(2). https://doi.org/10.18489/sacj.v33i2.1048 (Dibley & Machanick, 2021)|
The Modern Language Association proposed this style which is focused on the humanities, language, and literature. The MLA style is a style of citations applicable worldwide for scientific works, theses, articles, etc. The style contains information on the presentation of works (font, indents, etc.), as well as on the creation of bibliographic references.
The first format was launched in 1931 to serve as a style sheet in the writing of the journal of the PLMA institution (journal of the Modern Language Association of America), but as of the 1950s, it was already considered a universal format of interest to researchers, scholars, and students in the field of modern language and literature. In recent times, this referencing style is also commonly used in the social sciences.
The 8th edition of the MLA manual appeared in 2016 and includes examples on how to cite the bibliography and make the list of references. In 2021 the 9th edition will be published.
It is quite flexible to cite sources according to the MLA style: having retained the general format of the reference, you can apply it with ease to all types of sources.
The main order of elements in a bibliographic reference is as follows: having retained the general format of the reference, you can easily apply it to all types of sources.
|Book reference and citation Kanvaria, Vinod Kumar. Plagiarism, Citation And Referencing. Create Space, 2015. (Kanvaria) Journal reference and citation Dibley, James, and Philip Machanick. “Citation And Referencing Guidelines”. South African Computer Journal, vol 33, no. 2, 2021. South African Institute Of Computer Scientists And Information Technologists, https://doi.org/10.18489/sacj.v33i2.1048. (Dibley, and Machanick)|
The Chicago Manual of Style (CMoS) is a manual for academic writing published by the University of Chicago Press in 1906. It is one of the most commonly used referencing style guides in the United States and focuses on American English. This style deals with various aspects related to editorial practice.
For the moment, there are seventeen editions of the book, the last of which appeared in 2017. The CMoS contains comprehensive materials and presents answers to almost any question the author of a scholarly work may have. Also, compared to other citation styles, CMoS offers modern and up-to-date approaches.
This style is frequently used in business, history, and the fine arts. Nevertheless, students need to ask their universities/professors what style they require for research papers, either in-text citation or footnotes (Turabian style).
|Book reference and citation Kanvaria, Vinod Kumar. 2015. Plagiarism, Citation And Referencing. Lexington, KY.: Create Space. (for in-text citation) (Kanvaria 2015) Kanvaria, Vinod Kumar. Plagiarism, Citation And Referencing. Lexington, KY.: Create Space, 2015. (for footnotes) Journal reference and citation Dibley, James, and Philip Machanick. 2021. “Citation And Referencing Guidelines”. South African Computer Journal 33 (2). doi:10.18489/sacj.v33i2.1048. (for in-text citation) (Dibley and Machanick 2021) Dibley, James, and Philip Machanick. “Citation And Referencing Guidelines”. South African Computer Journal 33, no. 2 (2021). doi:10.18489/sacj.v33i2.1048. (for footnotes)|
The main order of elements in all three bibliographic references is as follows:
1. Author (individual or organization).
2. Title of the work.
3. Title of the source (website, journal article, etc. which contains the work).
4. Editors, or other contributors.
5. Version (edition number, etc.).
6. Number (volume, etc.).
7. Publishing place.
8. Publication date.
9. Location (particular pages, URL addresses, etc.).
The number of elements can thus be greater than less, which depends on the referencing style and the type of the source.
We have seen that the major differences between the APA and Chicago styles relate to in-text citations. You can also use the footnotes by following the Chicago (Turabian) style to cite your sources. MLA is a more commonly applied style than APA at the secondary level. The MLA style is used for social science subjects, such as literature, humanities, and others. The APA format is applied to technical and scientific work.
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