Introduction to Sports Management – Week Eight Welcome Assessment Update Discussion Forum Complete Module FourTHE AFL is pleased to announce the 2021 NAB AFL Women’s Grand Final will be held at 2:00pm AEST on Saturday, April 17at either Adelaide Oval, the MCG or The Gabba, with all ticket prices frozen at $10, and kids under 18 free.The match will commence in the standalone timeslot of 2:00pm AEST, with the AFL moving the start time of the Round FiveAFL Western Bulldogs vs. Gold Coast SUNS match from 1:45pm AEST to 4:35pm AEST to ensure clear air and no crossoverof matches for the biggest game of the women’s season.If the match is to be played at the MCG, the Round Five AFL match between Carlton and Port Adelaide will be played thatnight and pushed back to start at 7:40pm AEST (currently 7:25pm AEST).If the match is to be played at the MCG, the crowd will disperse post the NAB AFLW Grand Final, the stadium will becleaned and ready for gates to open for the AFL match that night.The NAB AFL Women’s Grand Final will be broadcast live on the Seven Network and FOX FOOTY and streamed live viaKayo, womens.afl and the AFLW Official App.Student Activity:What do the AFL need to do over the next 10 days to deliver a successful AFLW Grand Final? Assessment Summary AssessmentAssessment TypeLengthDueWeight1Reflective Journal –My Sport Experience1000 wordsEnd of Week 4 – Sun Mar 1420%2Project Proposal for anew sport (Report)1500 wordsEnd of Week 6 – Sun Mar 2840%3Final Report for a newsport1500 wordsEnd of Week 12 – Sun May 940% Assessment 2 and 3 are linked – you need to choose create a new sport, or modify an existingsport, to attract a new market.Assessment Three BriefDevelop the final form of the sport that you have invented including: Introduction to the sport – name, brief concept, season or time of year The target market – who will play this new sport? Mission and/or Vision Statement – what is the purpose of this new sport? Goals and SMART Objectives – how will you establish this sport in the next 3-5 years? Proposed Governance Structure – how would you structure the Board of Management? SWOT Analysis – table format with a minimum of five factors in each of the four segments Risk Matrix Table – potential risks and strategies to minimise them Final Rules including scoring and how to win Equipment and Uniforms required to play and to minimise risks Proposed Competition for the first year including – how many games (team sports) or events (individual sport) in the first year? Venues/Facilities – where will the sport be played and why? Proposed logo and colours (brand) of the new sport The sports position on ethics and social responsibility Proposed Funding Partners – commercial sponsors and government grants Proposed Launch – what event would you coordinate to launch this new sport? Conclusion – convince the reader that this sport has a futureSubject Overview Module 1Module 2Module 3Module 4Module 5Module 6The Sports IndustryGovernance and RiskSport Marketing and MediaSport Tourism and EventsSport Facilities and VenuesProfessionalism and Ethics Module Four Topics Sport Tourism defined Sport Tourist segments Event definitions and classificationsThis week: Event Impacts Event Planning and Conceptualisation Event ManualsModule Four Readings1. Module Four Lecture Slides2. Dunning, E. (1999). Ch. 2 Sport in the Western civilizing process.3. Frost, W., & Laing J. (2011). Strategic management of festivalsand events (2nd ed.)4. Getz, D., Svensson, B., Peterssen, R., & Gunnervall, A. (2012).Hallmark events: Definition, goals and planning process.5. Quinn, B. (2013). Key concepts in event management.6. Roberts, K (2016) Rio 2016: Study lifts the lid on the cost ofhosting the Olympic Games.7. Refer video:https://www.austrade.gov.au/Australian/Export/Exportmarkets/Industries/Major-Sporting-EventsDiscussion Forum:Watch this four-minute video that highlights Australia’s expertise in managing sport events:https://www.austrade.gov.au/Australian/Export/Export-markets/Industries/Major-Sporting-EventsHow does the management of successful sporting events contribute to Australia’s reputationaround the world? Post your response at the Discussion Forum.SPO101Module 4Sport Tourism and EventsSport Tourism SegmentsHinch and Higham (2011) identified three market segmentsfor the sport tourism sector: Active Sport Tourism Event Sport Tourism Nostalgia Sport TourismHinch and Higham (2011) acknowledged that, within eachsegment, the commitment, competitiveness and engagementof the sport tourist can differ significantly. Each segment hassmaller target markets, and possibly sub-cultures.Class ExampleIt is possible for a sport event tocapture all three market segments.The Boston Marathon is the world’soldest annual marathon and attracts30,000 elite and non-elite runners tocompete every year.An additional 500,000 spectators linethe streets to support the runners.The race starts in Hopkinton, andthis small town of 15,000 people willbuild the world’s first InternationalMarathon Centre including amuseum and hall of fame.Can you think of other examples?Event CategorisationEvents can be categorised on both type and size:Types of events: SportArt and CulturalFood and WineMusic/Film/ComedyMeetings, incentives, conferences, exhibitionsSize of events: Global (mega)HallmarkMajorMinor (local)Impact of EventsThe impact of events can be both positive and negative:Positive: Economic – job creation and income (direct and indirect) Infrastructure – facilities, hotels, roads, rail, airports Building civic and national pride Tourism – during and post eventNegative: Inflation due to demand Environmental – pollution, waste, noise Anti-social behaviour – Alcohol and drug abuse, gambling Jingoism (extreme patriotism) and insular behaviour Reputation – event failureEVENT PLANNINGPlanned eventsAs previously discussed, events are designed, planned andconstructed, otherwise they would not happen.Events are generally non-spontaneous, but not always, andeven the well-planned events have moments of spontaneity.There are many styles of events and new ones being created.The intent is to create or shape an individual or collectiveexperience.Event Planning ModelThere are various models and frameworks for planning eventsand many of them mirror the Strategic Planning Processfrom Module One or the Strategic Sport Marketing Processfrom Module Three.The framework highlighted on the next slide is the StrategicEvent Planning Process outlined by Allen, O’Toole, Harrisand McDonnell (2010).You will see some new steps in this process that we willfocus on – development of event concept or intent to bid,event feasibility analysis and establishment of organisationalstructure. There are also some strategic planning stepsthat you would be familiar with from earlier modules. The sport event conceptThe sport event concept assumes you are creating a newevent or bidding for a new event, and requires both a planningelement and a creative element.When thinking about a new event it obviously needs to beconsistent with the mission, vision and values of the sport.When Cricket Australia needed a short, fun, family event forthe summer holidays they did not consider other sports or formsof entertainment, they created the Big Bash (T20 Cricket).The goals and objectives of the Big Bash were then written toenhance the mission, vision and values of Cricket Australia.There are some basic factors that need to be consideredin the early stages of conceptualising the event: Understand who the stakeholders are; Understand the stakeholders desires and needs; Involve stakeholders early – you will need resources andsupport; Work towards consensus – not everyone will agree; Make sure everyone is happy with what the event ishoping to achieve – the success factors; Be creative – this is an opportunity to do somethingdifferent.The sport event conceptConceptualising the eventThere are three major steps in event concept development.It is important for sport and event managers to completethese steps even when it appears that the event concept isfairly rigid or simple:1. Determine the experience2. Develop the concept3. Design the experience1. Determine the experienceStep One sets the parameters for the event. Address theconcept questions before starting – the Five W’s: What type of event will it be? (content/product) Why is the event being held? (purpose/objective) Who will be the audience? (target market) Where will it be held? (location/venue) When will the event be staged? (timing)Goldblatt, J. (2014). Special Events. Wiley & Sons: New Jersey:What: event product What is the core product that isto be developed or presented? What are the event attendeesgoing to do at the event? What secondary products areon the program? What entertains, educates orotherwise occupies the time ofthe event attendees? What experience are theylooking for?Why: event purpose Why is the event being held? Participation or Competition? Awareness or Education? Break-even or profit? Confirm the importance of the event –what is it trying to achieve? This step helps you develop yourgoals and SMART objectives This step is central to event planningand evaluation.Who: event audience Who are the key stakeholders? Who is the target market? What are their needs? Do we have a clear understanding? Are we making assumptions or havewe consulted? Can we create a customer profile –demographics and psychographics? Do we need more market research?Where: event location Where will the event be held? What city, suburb or town? What sport facility or venue isrequired? Is that facility available? Does the facility require anychanges or improvements? Does that facility deliver theexperience we are hoping for?When: event timing When is the event planned to be held? Is this the ideal time to hold the event? Do you have enough time to plan the event? Does the event clash with other events? Does the proposed date match the needs and expectationsof the target market? Are then any seasonal, traditional or environmental issues?Winning the event is a bonus!2. Develop the ConceptAddressing the 5 W’s gives you some confidence that youhave the key elements in place and can secure the criticalelements – date, venue, talent.If your event needs a particular date, venue or person todeliver the experience you are looking for then you need tostart the conceptualisation process early.Once the critical elements are confirmed and you shift intoplanning mode the concept will continue to evolve, and thecreative juices can still be applied to other elements of theevent including event theme, the opening ceremony, sponsoractivation, merchandise and fan engagement.3. Design the ExperienceSenior Event Managers with experience have a planningframework that they follow and they know where to devotetime and resources and where they can ‘cut corners’.If you are new to event planning then the Rossman andSchlatter (2000) program development cycle is highlyrecommended. This framework (next slide) is used acrossthe world to design recreation and sport programs.Most Event Managers start their careers at this level, designinga program for a specific community group, and then progressingto a larger events team responsible for major or global events. 3. Design the ExperienceEvent Planning and Recreation Programming are very similarprocesses. Rossman and Schlatter’s program developmentcycle uses similar language and concepts: Step 1: MissionStep 2: Strategic DirectionsStep 3: Participant InputStep 4: Program GoalsStep 5: Program DesignStep 6: Program PlanStep 7: ImplementationStep 8: EvaluationStep 9: Disposition Decision The cycle is successful because it puts the emphasis on theexperience – making sure that whatever you design ismeeting the needs of the participants/audience.Rossman, J. and Schlatter, B. (2000) Recreation Programming: Designing Leisure Experiences, Sagamore Publishing: USA.Event Feasibility AnalysisIf you are creating an event for the first time or bidding for anexisting event, you may need to complete a feasibility study.The Feasibility Analysis will help you collate all data andinformation about the event and should include some level ofcommunity consultation where you gain feedback from thekey stakeholders and target market.The Feasibility Analysis addresses an important question –is the event feasible? The report can be used to convinceothers to proceed with the event, including your CEO andBoard, government funders and corporate partners.Organisational StructureAll events need people to make them possible, and theycould be employed staff, contractors or volunteers. Once thesport is ready to proceed the organisational structure willoutline one of the following options: Utilise the existing volunteer network in sport, and offeradditional training and support; Use a combination of existing staff and volunteers; Employ new staff to plan and manage the event; Create an LOC – local organising committee – that has keystakeholders making decisions, and the capacity to employprofessional staff as the work increases. Outsource the planning and management to an event company.Event ImplementationThe process of planning, managing and implementing anevent can be very complex and this will be explored further inother subjects focused on event management and operations.Some events are implemented by a single person. The 2000Sydney Olympics employed 33,000 staff and contractors,and recruited 46,967 volunteers – 80,000 people.It would be impossible to capture every decision during eventplanning and every challenge during implementation, but weshould try! The Event Manual becomes a useful resource toguide the current events team and support future teams.Event Manual – Key ElementsThe manual is essentially a ‘how to guide’ for your sportevent and helps you to capture past learnings and futuredirections for the event.It should contain all information that is relevant to theoperational aspects of the event.It should include: Statement of intent – a message from the eventmanager about the manuals use and purpose. Mission and vision of the event/sport. Goals and SMART objectives of the event.Event Manual – Key Elements Event Concept – outline, dates, venue, audience Event Theme – key messages, look and feel, branding Event Sites – key areas within the venue, multiple venues Staffing – roles and responsibilities, volunteer roles Staff Accreditation – who has access and where Event Communications – control centre, radio protocol Contact Details – key people running the event Distribution List – who gets the manual? Event Suppliers – Security, Cleaning, Staging, Fencing Licensing/permits – alcohol, noise, traffic, food and hygieneEvent Manual – Key Elements Production schedules – bump in, bump out, key times Transport – pubic transport, pedestrian routes, car-parking Disability Access – permits, parking, seating Traffic Management – road closures, emergency services Risk Management Plan – risk assessments, insurance Emergency Management – evacuation plans, maps Security – key people, roles and responsibilities Waste Management – waste removal, cleaningEvent Checklists – not all stakeholders will need the entiremanual but may require a checklist of their key responsibilities.Evaluation and ImpactAll events will require an evaluation of some kind. The EventManager will usually report internally to a CEO or EventsCommittee, and also externally to a range of stakeholdersincluding government and commercial partners.The evaluation reviews the Goals and SMART Objectivesand determines if they were met. Both quantitative data (egparticipation numbers, revenue) and qualitative data (egsatisfaction levels, feedback) are usually required.Larger events with significant funding and sponsorship willalso need to measure the event’s impact – was it positive ornegative and should the event continue in the future?Post Event ReviewEvaluation Reports and Impact Studies can take months andit is important they are not rushed. It is also important toreflect on the event and speak to multiple stakeholders.A Review Meeting will determine what changes are requiredfor the future. It is rare that the same event will be deliverednext year – certain elements will change and this is a goodindication that you have embraced the feedback.The Event Manager will submit a final report including anyrecommendations, update the Event Manual, and take ashort break before starting the process again.ReferencesAllen, J., O’Toole, W., Harris, R., & McDonnell, I. (2010). Festival andSpecial Event Management (5th ed.). Wiley & Sons: Qld.Getz, D. (2005) Event Management and Event Tourism (2nd ed.). CognizantCommunication Corp: New York.Goldblatt, J. (2014). Special Events. Wiley & Sons: New Jersey:Hinch, T., & Higham, J. (2011). Sport Tourism Development (2nd ed.).Channel View: Bristol.Rossman, J. and Schlatter, B. (2000) Recreation Programming: DesigningLeisure Experiences, Sagamore Publishing: USA.The Human ExperienceLeisure and Sport is a multi-phase experience and if we understand this we can plan for it:Anticipation Participation (Consumption) Reflection Bidding for the event Logo for the Bid Event Ambassadors Winning the Bid Event Launch/website Marketing and PR program Confirming the schedule Releasing the tickets Releasing merchandise Countdown to first game Post game celebrations Post game merchandise Positive word of mouth Social media Photos/Video Books/DVD Memorabilia/Souvenirs Reunions/Replays Repeat purchase Securing tickets Purchasing merchandise Booking travel/accommodation Planning the day Attending the event Purchasing the program Food/drink/hospitality
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