Lead Innovative Thinking and Practice | My Assignment Tutor


BSBINN801 Lead Innovative Thinking and Practice This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to generate,lead and sustain innovative organisational thinking and practice. Itapplies to individuals who initiate and lead innovation in anyindustry or community context. Unit content: Generate innovative thinking and creativity Lead innovative practices Generate and support a culture of innovation Sustain innovative thinking and practice.11. Generate Innovative Thinking and Creativity2Theory and thinking on innovation and creativitycan contribute to applied practice Theory and thinking make an important contribution to applied practicethat is, how you apply innovation and creativity in your work. In your role, it is important that you research and use a range oftechniques and tools to generate new ideas and thinking. Examples of techniques and tools to generate new ideas and thinkinginclude: Brainstorming Concept maps Creative thinking matrices DeBono tools (e.g. the six hats of creative thinking) Foresight tools3 In addition to researching these techniques and tools to generate new ideas andthinking, it is important that you use these – that is, that you apply them in yourwork. How you do this depends on a variety of factors – including the type of work youundertake, the context of innovation and creativity your organisation operates in,and the type(s) of techniques and tools you use, etc.4Researching tools and techniques You can find out more about these techniques and tools to generate newideas and thinking, and how to use them, by researching them. Research can be undertaken in a variety of ways, for example: By reading about these techniques and tools – journal and newspaper articles,organization’s annual reports By speaking with people about these tools , both inside or outside yourorganization, e.g. professional associations, or networking association groupssuch as LinkedIn By attending training (e.g. workshops, conferences, etc.) By observing how these techniques and tools are applied to foster innovationand creativity, both in your own and other organisations.5Research trends shaping your organisation’s current andfuture thinking and practice It is important for managers to understand the trends in thinking and emergingpractices, which relate to your organisation’s current and future thinking andpractices. Essentially, this means understanding: (1) the ways in which your organisationthinks about and undertakes its current activities, particularly in relation to how itis innovative and creative, and (2) how this impacts your organisation’s futureactivities. Understanding these important pieces of information can improve the way youlead innovative and creative thinking and practice in your work. To understand the trends shaping your organisation’s current and future thinkingand practice, you should research these.6Analyse trends shaping your organisation’s current andfuture thinking and practice Analysis involves reviewing and critically analysing the trends shaping yourorganisation’s current and future thinking and practice. Some questions to help you with this analysis are: What are the trends? How has the trend affected past organisational activities? How is it affecting currentactivities? How might it affect future activities?How has the trend shaped your organisation’s thinking – in a positive, neutral ornegative way? How might this change in the future – and why?How is the trend progressing – in a downward, neutral or upward direction?  What is driving the trend (e.g. concerns about cost, the availability of resources,customer preferences, etc.)? How might these drivers change in future?7Compare and contrast current and past theories andthinking about innovation In the past, thinking and innovation was focused solely on improving theoperation and profitability of the business – for example, to develop newproducts, implement new processes and identify new strategies, etc., to makethe organisation more efficient and cost-effective. Currently, theories about thinking and innovation are focused more broadly oncreating a well-balanced workforce, a collaborative work environment, and acontext where people are encouraged to think ‘outside-the-box’ and to not fearfailure, etc. Read p. 15 for examples of current and past theories and thinking.8Introduce creative thinking techniques to foster personaland team innovation You should use a range of techniques and tools to stimulate creative or innovativethinking – both in yourself, and in those you work with. In order for them to be used in your organisation, you must introduce and promotetechniques and tools to stimulate creative or innovative to the people in yourorganisation. The first step in this process is often to develop a change plan, listing the steps individually. Once you have developed a change plan, you then need to create a drive for change –that is, for the use of the techniques and tools to stimulate creative or innovative thinking –amongst others in your organisation.9Promote change to foster personal and team innovation Promoting the benefits of change is essential in create a drive for changeamongst others in your organisation – that is, in getting people ‘on board’with the change, and motivated to achieve changes in their own workpractices. There may be a range of benefits of change – for both an organisationgenerally, and its employees specifically, for example, in the context oftechniques and tools to stimulate creative or innovative thinking,enhanced personal and team innovation is a key benefit of change.10Promote techniques It is important that you introduce and promote specific techniques and tools tostimulate creative or innovative thinking to the people in your organisation. Using techniques and tools to stimulate creative or innovative thinking can fosterinnovation: (1) at the individual level and, therefore, (2) at the team-level. In introducing and promoting techniques and tools to stimulate creative or innovativethinking, it may be necessary for you to educate and train people in yourorganisation on their effective use.11Instructional design The term ‘instructional design’ refers to the ways in which training programs aredesigned, to assist the participants’ learning and skills development. There are anumber of basic principles that should be used in instructional design: Existing knowledge / skills / experience should be used as a foundation for thedevelopment of new knowledge / skills / experience, where possible Learning is promoted when people are engaged in solving real-world problemsNew knowledge / skills / experience should be demonstrated and applied by the learner, eitherformally (e.g. in assessments) or informally (e.g. in their work)New knowledge / skills / experience should be integrated into the learner’s world, including intheir day-to-day work 12Individual learning styles Learning programs should be based on people’s preferred learning styles It is important that the learning programs you design meet the needs of people witha variety of different learning styles. There are three key learning styles – visual, auditory and kinaesthetic (see LearningResource, p.20. It is important to note that most adult learners fall into at least one, and often morethan one, of these categories. Remember: you should be thoughtful about the ways in which you introduce andpromote techniques and tools to stimulate creative or innovative thinking to others inyour organisation – particularly if others are resistant to such changes.13Principles of adult Learning► Adults are internally-motivated and self-directed.► Adults bring life experience and knowledge to their learning.► Adults are goal oriented► Adults are relevancy oriented► Adults are practical► Adult learners like to be respected14Evaluate overall context for individual and collectiveinnovative thinking and creativity – organisational andindustry context It is important that you evaluate the overall context for innovative and creativethinking at both the individual level and the collective level – including theorganisational context and the broader industry context. Considering the organisational and industry context is relevant for a number ofreasons: It supports you to identify the ways innovation / creativity can be achieved It helps you to understand the specific conditions for innovation / creativity, includingthe resources required to promote innovation / creativity It enables you to identify the drivers / enablers of innovation / creativity It allows you to determine the requirements to promote sustainable innovation It helps you to identify and address barriers / risks to innovation / creativity15Analyse the internal and external conditions or factorsthat impact on organisational innovation Remember: you must be able to evaluate the overall context forindividual and collective innovative thinking and creativity. The ‘overall’ context includes: The culture of the environment in which innovation / creativity takesplace The electronic and non-physical environment The local / regional, national and global environment The work group or community which exists in an environment.16Identify specific conditions for innovation and issues thatimpact on individual and collective innovative thinking andcreativity You must identify specific conditions for innovation and creativity to succeed. These can also be thought of as issues or mechanism which impact – both positivelyand negatively – on innovation / creativity at the individual and the collective levels. These conditions for, and issues that impact on, innovation may span causal factorsand issues relating to: The ability to gain and respond to customer feedback Available resources (in all their forms) Business systems Changes to workflow and processes Competency, capability and skills of the workforce Culture and values17Research conditions for innovation and issues that impact onindividual and collective innovative thinking and creativity It is important that you research the conditions for, and issues that impact on,innovation. Remember: research can be undertaken in a variety of ways: By becoming aware of issues in the field in which you work – for example, by readingindustry journals and websites, attending industry events, etc. By reading about issues affecting your organisation specifically – for example, by readingpast reports (in particular, your organisation’s annual reports) By speaking with people – both within, and external to, you organisation – about the issueswhich affect the industry generally, and your organisation specifically18MECHANISMS AT THE SYSTEM AND PROCESS LEVELS THAT CANSUPPORT INNOVATIVE PRACTICES These are the issues or mechanisms that impact – both positively and negatively – oninnovation / creativity at the individual and the collective levels (see LearningResource p. 25). These mechanisms occur: At the system-level – that is, at the level of the organisation or the workgroup At the process level – that is, at the point at which people and teams undertake activitiesto fulfil work tasks and achieve work outcomes, etc.19Research and review innovation drivers By researching and reviewing the drivers of, and enablers to, innovationyou will be able to identify those applying to your organisation Drivers are factors or changes that impel innovative practice. They may include: Customer expectations Globalisation Market shifts New legislation (e.g. compliance) or policies (e.g. environmental protection) Price and profitability Technology changes20Research and review innovation enablers Enablers are factors that help overcome barriers to innovation.They can include: Breakthroughs, research, development, inventions, etc. Collaboration Culture Intellectual property Management support Profitability Resources Responsiveness Skilled workforce Technology21TOPIC 2 – LEAD INNOVATIVE PRACTICES22Leadership styles To lead innovative thinking and practices in your organisation effectively, you mustbe aware of with the different leadership styles, and what your own leadership styleis. There are a number of different leadership styles: Transformational leadership Transactional leadership Participative leadership Autocratic leadership Laissez-faire leadership23Your personal leadership style To be effective you review, challenge, refine and develop your own personalleadership style, to model and support positive and innovative thinking andpractice in your organisation. What is your natural leadership style? Being able to identify it is a foundation ofleadership. Consider the leadership styles that promote innovation – how can you apply keyaspects of these to your own leadership style – research and training. Practicing the application of new leadership strategies in your work.24Develop your capacity to lead innovative thinking andpractice in an organisational context You must refine and develop your own personal leadership style, to model andsupport positive and innovative thinking and practice in your organisation. Effective leaders are those who: Strive to continually improve their organisation Are able to accurately represent their organisation’s goals and expectations Are effective communicators, and able to engage different people Have something to contribute (e.g. skills, knowledge, experience, passion) Are frontrunners, not waiting for others to ‘get the job done’.25Characteristics of effective leaders Integrity – that is, people trust and respect the person – and accountability Courage to address issues others have identified as ‘too difficult’ Commitment to continue working on a task even when challenges arise The ability to care, genuinely, about others in the organisation The capacity to be creative and flexible, and an eagerness to learn andadapt Excellent interpersonal skills, with the ability to mobilise others The ability to be forward-thinking, or to have a vision of the future organisation The ability to practice stewardship (i.e. getting people to assume responsibility) The ability to effectively delegate tasks in an appropriate and effective way26Impact of leadership style on innovation in organisations,including how specific approaches may encourage orinhibit innovation Depending on an organisation and the context in which it operates, leadership stylesmay: (1) promote innovation and creativity, or (2) stifle innovation and creativity. Perhaps the best style of leadership to promote innovation in organisations is ‘innovativeleadership’. This is a combination of leadership styles encouraging employees’ involvement – includingtransformational and participative (democratic) leadership.27Assess and determine the requirements to promotesustainable innovative activity for the operational context andpeople involved Sustainable innovative activity is innovative activity that can be maintained in themedium- to long-term. If innovation is not sustainable, it will be difficult to implement and maintain, employeeswill fail to embrace it, and its benefits for your organisation (if any) will be minimal andbrief. Assessing and determining the requirements to promote sustainable innovative activityinvolves undertaking research in your organisation and industry context. Your aim is to determine how innovation can be sustained in the medium- to long-term inthis context.28Devise and implement most appropriate means to promoteknowledge transfer Knowledge transfer is the set of strategies used to transfer knowledge (information) fromone part of an organisation to another, or from one organisation to another, etc. There are a variety of strategies you can use to promote knowledge transfer: Peer-to-peer mentoring or coaching Opportunities for work shadowing or observation Asking employees to produce standard operating procedures for key tasks Technology-based activities (e.g. video-captured presentations) Online chats, forums, intranet blog postings, etc. You must determine and implement the most appropriate means to promote knowledgetransfer for each situation.29Identify, evaluate and manage risks associated withinnovation within an organisation Although the benefits to an organisation of innovation can be significant, in many casesinnovation is associated with at least some degree of risk. You should identify, evaluate and manage the risks associated with innovation in yourorganisation. Read the following:Innovation can be a company’s most powerful tool and a key driver of value. Yet many executives, fearful of therisks inherent in pursuing edgy new ideas that may not succeed, hesitate to unleash its full potential. They prefer,indeed, to renovate rather than to innovate.Some, of course, would argue that responsible risk management necessitates a cautious approach to innovation.Only startups, they say, can afford to court the risk of failure. Organisations are complex entities, held together bya web of controls; loosening those controls to give innovation teams free rein could incur unacceptable risks andcosts, not only for the company but for its various stakeholders as well. However, perhaps a better approach toinnovate in a way which controls the risks associated with innovation.Accenture, ND.30Challenges, barriers and risks to innovation within anorganisation Risks represent key challenges and barriers to innovation within an organisation. Examples of these include: Property / equipment Environmental issues Market changes or resource deficiencies Occupational health and safety issues (including disease) Product or systems / processes failures Professional incompetence Resistance to change31Identifying risk One of the most useful strategies is todo a Strengths-WeaknessesOpportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis. This involves considering the strengthsand weaknesses of differentinnovations, and the opportunities andthreats associated with each option.32Level of risk A standard risk matrix is presentedat right You can use it to identify the levelof risk, i.e. which risks are mostlikely to occur, and which are themost serious.33Risk treatment• Once you have evaluated risksassociated with innovation, asdescribed, it is important that youmanage these risks.• This is done using the hierarchy ofrisk control, which describes theseries of strategies which can beused to manage a risk.34Examples of the hierarchy of risk control are provided in thefollowing table: INTERVENTIONEXPLANATION1.EliminationThe hazard is taken away, or the job changed to avoid the hazard2.SubstitutionThe hazard is substituted with something less risky where possible andappropriate3.IsolationThe hazard is isolated, or the person completing the work taskremoved from the risk4.EngineeringThe design of the job or of the equipment required to complete thejob is changed5.AdministrationActivities such as training are applied to make the job less risky6.Personal protectiveequipment (PPE)PPE (e.g. gloves, hardhat, boots, etc.) is worn to protect the workerfrom the hazard and thereby reduce the risk 35TOPIC 3 – GENERATE AND SUPPORT A CULTURE OFINNOVATION36Introduce and promote innovative practices, processes,products or services The strategy to introduce and promote creative thinking techniques was describedin an earlier section of this unit. It can also be applied to introduce and promoteinnovative practices, processes, products and services. When introducing and promoting innovative practices, processes, products andservices in your organisation, it is important that you do so in a manner which is: Appropriate to the audience you are working with, for example:• It considers what they already know, and what they need to know• It considers their level of understanding Consistent with organisational requirements, for example:• Requirements related to budgets and timeframes• Requirements related to the way(s) in which knowledge is transferred37Organisational requirements for change andinnovation You can find out about audience and organisational requirements forintroducing and promoting innovative practices, processes, productsand services by: Reading key documents, such as your organisation’s policies andproceduresSpeaking with your colleagues and supervisors about expectations /preferencesReviewing the way your own organisation, or similar organisations, havesuccessfully introduced and promoted innovation in the past 38Establish ways to capture, communicate and shareinnovative ideas and practices You will need to establish ways to capture – that is, record or document –innovative ideas and practices, because capturing innovative ideas andpractices is important for a it provides evidence that the organisation isengaging in these ideas and practices, and it can help employees remain ‘ontrack’ when implementing these ideas and practices. There are a variety of ways you may capture, record or document innovativeideas and practices – consider the following examples: Creating documentation about innovative ideas and practices Recording the application of innovative ideas / practices as this occurs, using videoand / or audio-recording and photography (with permission).39Initiate and foster communication, consultation and teamdevelopment approaches It is important that you initiate and foster communication, consultation and team developmentapproaches that support innovation. Communication is essentially the transfer of information between and among people –however, this can be a complex process! Simply, communication begins with a sender, a person who has information – or, a message –they wish to communicate. SENDER(Encodes)ChannelInformation /messageRECEIVER(Decodes)Feedback 40Communication supporting innovation It is important that you initiate and foster communication that supportsinnovation. Consider the following: Tell people about innovation, and why it is necessary, focus on the benefitsinnovation is expected to bring to your organisation When speaking about innovation, be clear about what innovation is When speaking about innovation, relate this to people’s goals – both at theindividual level and the organisational level – and people’s work tasks When implementing innovation, speak one-on-one with people who makeprogress happen – this includes managers / supervisors, and alsocolleagues41Adapt your communication to suit the individual person youare communicating with: Pace according to the person’s vocal style. Listen to the person’s speed, tone, volume and length of message. Thenwithout mimicking them, use a similar speed of voice, tone, volume and length of message. Pacing will buildrapport and comfort with your customer Adjust your level of simplicity and complexity. Listen to the person and ask yourself how simple or complex theyseem to be talking and thinking. If they want it simple, keep it as simple and clear as possible. If the person seemsto want more complexity, go into greater depth and substance as is appropriate. Adjusting is a powerful way tobuild clarity, rapport and understanding Mirror the person basic gestures, expressions and body lean. Try to look more similar than different from yourcustomer. Don’t mimic them by following their every cue. Instead, try to gradually position yourself similarly interms of body lean (forward, upright, and backward) and look (relaxed or formal), use of basic hand gesturingand facial signalsBrennan, ND42Active listening It is important to remember that communication is a two-way process. Active listening is an important strategy you should use to receiveinformation. Active listening means that you listen to understand what is being said byanother person (do not just listen to respond). Active listening also involves contributing to a conversation in a mannerwhich demonstrates understanding – or, an interest in developingunderstanding – of the other person’s perspective on the topic beingdiscussed, or their emotional responses and needs, etc.43Feedback Once you have listened actively to a person, you should respondto what they have said. Your reply should indicate acknowledgement of what they havesaid and any concerns they have expressed You should also check their understanding of what you said Encourage people to put forward their ideas and suggestions.44Consultation Consultation is a key communication skill you will use in your practice leadinginnovative thinking and practice. Consulting with key stakeholders – including relevant individuals and groups, etc. – isnecessary to identify, understand and develop effective responses to issues ofconcern. Consultation should be planned to include all relevant members of the organisation(i.e. all stakeholders – people who have an interest or stake in the process).45Consultation Consultation may be undertaken in the form of: Meetings, forums and focus groups, etc. – usually at the group level Direct contact (e.g. telephone, emails, etc.) – usually at the individual level ‘Drop-boxes’ or websites where people can submit anonymous comments Mixed-methods surveys, opinion polls or formal feedback forms, etc. For your consultation to be effective you must consult with people using thetechniques which best suit their preferences, and in a manner consistent with yourorganisation’s policies and procedures.46Team development In order to lead innovative thinking and practice in your organisation, it isessential that you are familiar with team development approaches thatsupport innovation. One of the most popular theories of team development is the ‘Forming,Storming, Norming and Performing’ theory (see p. 46 of Student Resource). Teams go through stages in their development and operation.47Team roles Effective teamwork requires consideration of the different roles peopleplay in teamwork. A person may take one or more of a variety of different roles in a . Theseroles are part of people’s personalities, and cannot be assigned bymanagement You need to consider the roles people take in teams when you selectteam members If team dynamics are not working, you may need to change groupmembers and encouraging employees to form different, more productivegroups.48Belbin’s team roles There are various theories about teams, peoples’ roles within teams and howteam dynamics work and how to build effective teams One of the most popular frameworks is that developed by Belbin (1981). Heproposes 9 team roles, and allocates people to team roles based on theirscore on a questionnaire. He suggests that by knowing people’s preferredteam roles, a manager can build more effective teams: if all team roles arecovered, the team is more effective. Please note: to be effective, the questionnaire must be the official Belbinquestionnaire, and scored and interpreted by someone accredited to do so.However, versions used as training exercises can give an indication of people’steam roles. However, skills and experience must also be considered.49Managing teamwork processes Objectives, goals and timelines Ground rules Efficient consultation Build consensus Allocate work Clarify Keep good records Stick to the plan Monitor progress and stick to deadlines50Identify, assess and provide adequate resources for innovation to occur In your role, it is important that you identify, assess and provide adequate resourcesfor innovation to occur. These resources include: Human Resources Physical Resources Financial Resources Non-human Resources51Human resources Human resources are the people needed to implement the innovation. Identifying personnel begins with a process of brainstorming all the smallertasks involved in the implementation of the innovation, and then thinkingabout the type and number of people required to complete these tasks. The next step is to estimate the time required for each of these personnelon the innovation, as this is crucial in determining how much they will costto retain. Once you have identified the number and type of staff required, you mustthen source these staff.52Physical resources Physical resources are the equipment / materials to implement the innovation. Depending on the nature of the project you are implementing, there may be avariety of different resources you require – from materials directly related to theinnovation (e.g. new computer systems, office administration materials [e.g.stationery, telephone / internet access], supplies related to work tasks, etc.) totraining and education materials to support people to implement the innovation. The best way to identify the physical resources you need is, once again, tobrainstorm a list.53Financial resources Financial resources include the money you require to implement the innovation. Financial resources may be obtained in one of a number of different ways. Your organisation may already have funding for the innovation, in which case you willneed to engage in processes to release this funding. You can find information on sources of funding for business innovations online. The Australian government, and most States / Territories, have ‘grant finder’ websiteswhich list current funding opportunities.54Non-human resources Where required, you should order the resources required to implement yourinnovation; this involves contacting a company to arrange for them to providethese resources. You should be familiar with your organisation’s policies / procedures forprocurement – that is, the purchasing of resources. Be aware that it may be necessary for your supervisor or another senior person inthe organisation to approve purchases. Often, an organisation’s budget for an innovation project is capped and thefinances required to purchase resources are unavailable, so you have to makedo with existing resources.55Develop and apply strategies to foster a workplace culturecapable of encouraging innovation The term workplace culture refers to the character of an organisation. It could be described as the attitudes, values and beliefs of the organisation and its’ staff, or‘the way we do things here’ Read the following:56Culture is the character and personality of your organisation. It’s what makes your organisation unique and is the sum of its values,traditions, beliefs, interactions, behaviors, and attitudes. A multitude of different factors in the workplace play a role in developing aworkplace culture, including:• Leadership: the way your leaders communicate and interact with employees, what they communicate and emphasise, their vision for thefuture, what they celebrate and recognise, what they expect, the stories they tell, how they make decisions, the extent to which they aretrusted, and the beliefs and perceptions they reinforce• Management: how your organisation is managed – its systems, procedures, structure, hierarchy, controls, and goals/objectives; degree towhich managers empower employees to make decisions support and interact with them, and act consistently• Workplace practices: practices related to recruiting, selection, on-boarding, compensation, benefits, rewards and recognition, training anddevelopment, advancement/promotion, performance management, wellness, work/life balance (paid time off, leave, etc.), as well asworkplace traditions• Policies and philosophies: employment policies including, but not limited to, attendance, dress code, code of conduct, and scheduling;organisational philosophies such as hiring, compensation, pay for performance, and internal transfer and promotion• People: the people you hire – their personalities, beliefs, values, diverse skills and experiences, and everyday behaviors; the types ofinteractions that occur between employees (collaborative vs. confrontational, supportive vs. non-supportive, social vs. task-oriented, etc.)• Mission, vision, and values: clarity of mission, vision and values and whether they honestly reflect the beliefs and philosophies of yourorganisation; how inspiring they are to your employees; extent to which the mission, vision, and values are stable, widely communicated,and continuously emphasised• Work environment: objects, artefacts, and other physical signs in your workplace; what people place on their desks, what the organisationhangs on its walls, how it allocates space and offices, what those offices looks like, and how common areas are used• Communications: the manner in which communication occurs in your workplace; degree, type, and frequency of interaction andcommunication between leaders and employees and managers and employees; extent of transparency in sharing information and makingdecisionsERC, 2013.57Features of organisational culture There are a variety of features of a workplace culture which encourages innovation. Depending on your organisation and the context in which it operates, there are anumber of different strategies you may consider developing and applying to foster aworkplace culture which encourages innovation. Consider the following examples: Be flexible in how people undertake their work and achieve work outcomes Provide employees with the skills and confidence to engage in innovation Provide training to enable and empower employees to be innovative Provide support for innovation (e.g. through the provision of time / resources) Collaborate with other people / organisations who use innovative approaches58Establish mechanisms at system and processlevel that can support innovation There are a variety of features of a workplace culture which encourage innovation. An innovative workplace culture is underpinned by systems and process which supportinnovation. Remember: these mechanisms may exist: At the system-level – that is, at the level of the organisation or the workgroup At the process level – that is, at the point at which people and teams undertake activities to fulfil worktasks and achieve work outcomes, etc.59Topic 4 – Sustain innovative thinking and practice60Making innovation an integral part of organisational activity Develop strategies to make innovation an integral part of organisational activity, anddevelop and monitor processes to ensure ongoing awareness of individual and collectivecontributions to innovative thinking and practice In sustaining innovative practice, it is important to: Make innovation an integral part of your organisation’s activity Develop and monitor processes to ensure the ongoing awareness of individual and collectivecontributions to innovative thinking and practice61Analyse potential barriers and risks to innovation and devisestrategies to respond It is important that you analyse potential barriers and risks to innovation,and that you devise strategies to respond to these barriers and risks. This is a fundamental step in ensuring the innovation you are planning isimplemented effectively. You studied strategies to identify, evaluate and manage risks, barriers andchallenges associated with innovation within an organisation in an earliersection; you should revise this section now, if required.62Analyse and reflect on innovation performance as a basisfor developing strategies for improvement The purpose of this is to evaluate the innovation – including what went well, and what didnot (and why) – and to identify strategies you can use to improve the innovation. The process of evaluating the innovation may be: A formal one, evaluating the innovation against formal evaluation criteria An informal one, reflecting and seeking feedback on the innovation This section of the unit will describe each of these processes in detail. As noted, the analysis of an innovation may be undertaken as a formal evaluationprocess.63 Evaluation may be: Quantitative – that is, based on numbers (e.g. In the fortnight after implementing the newtelephone system [the innovation], sales increased by 15%) Qualitative – that is, based on written or spoken text (e.g. Most of the organisation’s employeesreported they were satisfied with the way the innovation was implemented; furthermore, most feltthe necessary resources were available) It is essential that you are familiar with a range of methods to evaluate the effectivenessof the implementation of an innovation. Data to formally evaluate an innovation may be collected in a variety of ways – butfundamentally, this involves consulting with those involved in, and affected by, theinnovation.64Feedback Feedback is, essentially, information from others which tells you about howeffective the implementation of an innovation has been, the impact of theinnovation on organisational outcomes, and other key information. Feedback is, essentially, a series of suggestions for improvement. It is important that the feedback on the effectiveness of innovationimplementation and the impact of the innovation on organisationaloutcomes you receive from other members of your workgroup areconsidered objectively.65Feedback Although all feedback – and particularly critical feedback – is valuable, itis important to remember that in most cases feedback is just somebody’ssubjective opinion. It is therefore important that you evaluate others’ ideas and opinions, asreflected in their feedback. It is also important that you reflect on the performance of the innovationyou have implemented. Remember: the fundamental purpose of analysing and reflecting on theperformance of an innovation is to gather information to inform strategiesto improve the innovation.66

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