How many of the below statements regarding endurance exercise training are correct? i) It generally causes maximal heart rate to decrease. ii) It leads to a larger difference between resting and maximal heart rate. iii) It causes the difference between EDV and ESV to decrease at rest. iv) It leads to a lower resting heart rate and hence resting cardiac output. a) b) c) d) e) 0 1 2 3 4 15) According to Poiseuille’s Law, a) doubling the radius of a blood vessel will cause its resistance to increase 4-fold b) doubling blood viscosity will increase blood vessel resistance by 2-fold c) doubling the radius of a blood vessel will cause its resistance to increase 8-fold d) doubling the length of a blood vessel will cause its resistance to increase by 16-fold e) doubling the radius of a blood vessel will cause its resistance to increase 16-fold 16) Blood flows continuously from the arteries to the veins because a) the major arteries have well developed elastica interna and elastica externa layers that allow these vessels to expand during systole and recoil during diastole b) the smooth muscle encircling the arterioles relaxes during systole allowing these vessels to accept more blood, and contract during diastole propelling blood forward c) the wave of depolarization causing the ventricles to contract enters the muscle walls of the major arteries, causing them to contract and force blood towards the capillaries d) the capillary beds open during systole allowing more blood to enter them, and close during diastole to promote blood flow to the veins e) venous blood pressure declines during diastole, hence maintaining the arteriolar pressure gradient promoting blood flow to the capillaries 17) Which of the following statements is incorrect? a) A greater volume of blood enters the major arteries during ventricular contraction than exits them during this phase of the cardiac cycle. b) The arterioles cause the pulse pressure to drop from about 40 mm Hg to 0 mm Hg as blood passes through them. c) Arterioles have relatively less elastic fibers but relatively more smooth muscle than do arteries. d) Arteries are low compliance vessels while veins are high compliance vessels e) Blood flow into the capillary beds is predominantly controlled by the degree of sympathetic stimulation to smooth muscles forming the precapillary sphincters. 18) Active hyperemia refers to the a) increase in blood hematocrit that occurs following intense exercise b) increase in blood flow through the capillaries of a tissue caused by an increase in the metabolic activity of that tissue c) increase in cardiac output that occurs during exercise d) constriction of arterioles in skeletal muscle caused by the binding of epinephrine to B2 receptors on the smooth muscle cells of these vessels e) increased bulk flow of fluid from the interstitial space to the capillaries during exercise
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