350 PART 5 SPECIAL CHALLENGES IN HUMAN RELATIONS | CLOSING CASE RACIAL VERSUS BEHAVIOR PROFILING facial expressions can communicate confidence or fear, trust or mistrust, curiosity or boredom. All U.S. customs agents are required to watch videos teach- ing them techniques for studying body language in order to identify potential terrorists and drug traffickers, 57 R a cial profiling refers to the use of a per- son’s race or ethnicity by law enforcement personnel. It is sometimes a key factor in I deciding whether to engage in enforce- ment. Some traffic stops, for example, are based on racial profiling:SS A Hispanic driver is stopped in a “white” neigh- borhood because he “looks out of place.” A group of black teenagers is pulled over because of the kind of car they are driving. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has taken the position that racial profiling dispropor- tionately targets people of color. This practice, at the federal level, is challenged by the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which guar- antees the right to be safe from unreasonable search and seizure without probable cause 56 Behavioral profiling is the process of observ- ing, anticipating, and interpreting a specific behav- ior. Gestures, body movements, tone of voice, and QUESTIONS 1. Critics of racial profiling argue that the indi- vidual rights of a suspect are violated if race is used as a factor in that suspicion. Do you agree or disagree with these critics? 2. Do you believe “behavior profiling” is a viable method of interpreting a person’s actions? Why or why not? 3. There is no simple codebook of nonverbal cues that is accepted across all the cultures of the world. How would you enhance the train- ing programs discussed in this case so that they compensate for cultural diversity? | CHAPTER 15 ENDNOTES
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