Which of the following statements is correct? a) The pores of Kohn facilitate gas exchange between adjacent alveoli. b) The ‘mucus escalator of the conducting zone is paralyzed by cigarette smoke. c) The lungs play an important role in regulating body fluid pH. d) Type I cells are thinner and have a larger surface area than do type II cells of the alveoli. e) All of the above statements are correct. 31) The following respiratory measurements were obtained for a resting female during routine clinical testing: respiratory rate – 10 breaths per minute; tidal volume – 500 mL; vital capacity 4000 mL; residual volume – 1000 mL; anatomical dead space = 150 mL. Based on this information, which of the following statements is incorrect? a) This individual’s total lung volume is 5000 mL. b) The minute ventilation of this individual is 5000 mL/min. c) The alveolar ventilation of this individual is 4000 mL/min. d) The maximal volume of air that this individual can exchange per breath is 4000 mL. e) The inspiratory reserve volume + the expiratory reserve volume of this individual is 3500 mL. 32) If intra-alveolar pressure drops below atmospheric pressure, a) air will flow out of the lungs b) air will flow into the lungs c) there will be no flow of air into or out of that lung as the person has a pneumothorax d) Answers a, b and care incorrect because intra-alveolar pressure is always greater than atmospheric pressure e) Answers a, b and care incorrect because intra-alveolar pressure is never greater than atmospheric pressure. 33) Transpulmonary pressure a) increases during expiration, thereby forcing air into the plural space aries between – 1 and +1 mm Hg over the course of a inspiration/expiration cycle c) must rapidly decrease to maintain the same tidal volume if histamine release causes airway resistance suddenly increase d) increases during inspiration because thoracic expansion causes the intrapleural pressure to become more negative e) Three of the above completions are correct. 34) Emphysema causes the residual volume of the lungs to increase because the a) build-up of scar tissue lowers lung compliance, making it harder to inhale b) destruction of small-diameter respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts increases airway resistance during inhalation, thus causing an decrease in tidal volume c) loss of type II cells causes less surfactant to be produced, thereby causing airway resistance to increase during exhalation, trapping excess gas in the lungs d) build up of scar tissue lowers the transpulmonary pressure gradient required to maintain a normal tidal volume e) destruction of elastic tissue in the lungs causes small airways to collapse during expiration, trapping excess gas in the lungs 35) A local reduction in results in a localized a) PO2vasodilation of pulmonary arterioles b) PCO2: vasoconstriction of bronchioles c) PO2; vasoconstriction of bronchioles d) PO2; vasoconstriction of systemic arterioles e) PCO2; vasoconstriction of pulmonary arterioles
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