Define a buffer system and describe the three major buffer systems of the body fluids. Explain how a buffer system adjusts when either a strong acid or strong base is added to an aqueous solution (describe the relevant chemistry. Explain how modifying the rate and depth of ventilation can permit respiratory compensation for a metabolic acid-base disorder (describe the chemistry).
B. Compare and contrast the physiology of the human sexual response in the male and the female, including stimuli, nervous regulation, and effector targets. How are they similar and how are they different? How does this relate to reproductive developmental homology?
C. Discuss the structure and function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. What factors determine GFR? Why is it so important to keep GFR stable? Explain in terms of nephron function. Briefly describe the autoregulatory mechanisms used in the kidney to maintain GFR on an ongoing basis.
D. Discuss the different mechanisms of reabsorption in the renal tubule. How are valuable nutrients reabsorbed from the filtrate? How are ions and water reabsorbed? In which parts of the renal tubule do these events occur? Distinguish between obligatory and facultative reabsorption.
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