BIOL121 Introduction Of Human Biological Science


Guiding Questions

Question 1

A. Endometrial tissue contains glandular structures relevant to Constantina’s reproductive function. Note the role of this glandular tissue in reproductive function, including any likely changes from normal in the secretion and resultant effects for Constantina.

B. Considering Constantina and her current circumstances, describe the role of oestrogen and discuss how the levels of this hormone may vary from normal.

Question 2

A. Describe the role of the kidneys in maintaining fluid balance with reference to the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Is Constantina at risk of not maintaining homeostatic fluid mechanisms? Why/why not?

B. What is a urinalysis and what is its significance for this case? With respect to the specific gravity (SG) component of Constantina’s urinalysis result, and using your knowledge of normal kidney function, would you expect this result? Why/why not?

Question 3

A. What is gut motility? Is it likely that Constantina’s gut motility has increased or decreased from normal? Discuss EITHER peristalsis OR segmentation in your response.

B. Why is it important for Constantina to maintain adequate protein intake? Discuss its importance in cellular recovery in your response.

Question 4

A. Constantina has used Voltaren Emugel (containing a NSAID) to ease her aching muscles. Identify the route of administration and discuss how the drug is likely to be absorbed after administration and its likely bioavailability. Justify your answer by discussing whether the drug would be subjected to hepatic first pass.

B. What is the importance of the half-life of a drug? Assuming 100% absorption and the half-life of an NSAID is 8 hours, calculate the % amount of drug that is likely to be present in the blood after 24 hours.

Question 5

A. Consider Constantina’s blood pressure result and discuss whether the mean arterial pressure is likely to be varied from normal. In your answer you must include reference to a possible change in blood viscosity and briefly mention the consequences of any change in BP upon kidney function.

B. Discuss the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the maintenance of blood pressure in Constantina’s circumstance.

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